Elliott's wave theory: The Elliott Wave Theory is an approach to market analysis that is based on repetitive wave patterns and the Fibonacci number sequence. An ideal Elliott wave pattern shows a five-wave advance followed by a three-wave decline.

The ratio of any number to the next larger number is 61.8%, which is a popular Fibonacci retracement number. The inverse of 61.8%, which is 38.2%, is also used as a Fibonacci retracement number (as well as extensions of that ratio, 161.8%, 261.8%).

Balance of trade levels and trends: The trade flow between countries illustrates the demand for goods and services, which in turn indicates demand for a country's currency to conduct trade. Surpluses and deficits in trade of goods and services reflect the competitiveness of a nation's economy. For example, trade deficits may have a negative impact on a nation's currency.